Jozini Municipality is located in Northern KwaZulu Natal and borders Swaziland and Mozambique. Jozini Municipality falls within the UMkhanyakude District Municipality and covers an area of 3073.08 km2. This equates to approximately 32% of the area of the district.
The Lebombo Mountains and Makhatini Flats provide some diverse and beautiful terrain rich in local resources including water features and even fossil sites. The name Jozini means place of spears and is attributes to the many spears found in the caves in the area that were used during ancient wars.
Jozini Municipality borders the following municipal areas:
- Umhlabuyalingana Local Municipality to the East
- Big 5 Hlabis Local Municipality to the South
- Portions of the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park to the South
- The Uphongolo Local Municipality (Zululand District) to the West
- Mozambique to the North
- Swaziland to the West
The Jozini Municipality has 23 municipal wards and 7 Traditional Authority Areas. The following
is a list of Traditional Councils in the Jozini Municipality:
- Myeni- Ngwenya
- Siqakatha (Gumede)
The Jozini Municipality also has a portion of State-owned land within its area of jurisdiction.
Apart from the Administrative entities that appear in the above map, the Jozini Municipal area
also boasts a number of environmentally sensitive areas, i.e.:
- Game Farms
- Protected Environmentally Sensitive Areas
- Non-Protected Environmentally Sensitive Areas
- Ezemvelo Wildlife Protected Areas
- Areas of High Intrinsic Biodiversity Value
- Pongola River
- 2 nature reserves (Ndumo which borders Jozini and uMhlabuyalingana; Mkhuze which borders Jozini and Big Five)
- Terrain (borders Ingwavuma and Swaziland)
- Jozini dam
Existing Nodes & Corridors
Investment points (Nodes) are the existing and future growth points and centers of population concentration within the municipality. They form the bases for the allocation of funding and resources as well as the rollout of service delivery. It is crucial to build upon such investment points we also find a clustering of certain activities such as shops, schools, churches, community halls and clinics. The table below contains the hierarchy of investment points for Jozini:
Mkhuze: is the economic hub of the municipal area and will remain the focus for future development. Mkuze town is centrally located and it served by major road such as the N2 which links it with Hluhluwe, Mtubatuba, Richards Bay towns.
There is an influx of major services such as offices, residential development and commercial uses has led to Mkuze being the major investment node within the area of Jozini Municipality. The municipality further envisage the procurement of immovable property (Elize Farm) where it aims create the investment opportunities that will enhance the proposed developments in Mkhuze which include the Airport and the mixed used development. This immovable asset will unlock the socio-economics for the whole of Jozini and increase the revenue base of the municipality.
To date the service provider has been appointed to conduct feasibility studies that will allow the municipality to further engage with relevant stakeholders for funding to secure the said land.
Jozini: is the second economic hub within the area of jurisdiction of the Jozini municipality, however the topographical constraints and land tenure issues has led to flee of potential
investors to other areas.
This town experiences high influx of population and traffic. The municipality has engaged with the department of transport in the Province to intervene in the construction of the bypass road which will assist in reducing the traffic congestion and further unlock economic drivers as this town is bordered by two countries (Swaziland and Mozambique) which gives high positive impact in the economy of Jozini.
Rural Areas: rural areas are characterized by extensive commercial and subsistence farming, mainly crop production and cattle farming.
Movement Patterns & Routes
The major structuring element for determining the existing and future concentration of development, activity and investment in the Jozini Municipality consists of an access and movement hierarchy that has been established through the major internal and external national and provincial linkages.
In rural, provincial and national contexts, corridors range in scale depending on function and categorisation of the transportation route that forms the basis of the corridor. Corridors carry the flows of people and trade into and around the nodes connected through the corridor. These
flows of people and trade make a corridor function, and should form an integral part of the corridor planning and development processes.
The key advantage of a corridor as a spatial structuring element, and tool for economic growth, is that is has the potential to link areas of higher thresholds (levels of support) and economic potential, with those that have insufficient thresholds. This allows areas that are poorly serviced to be linked to areas of opportunity and benefit with higher thresholds.
Land Cover and Broad Land Uses
The current land uses evident in the municipal area relate to the places people live, the manner in which they live as well as the manner in which they use the land. As such, the following
broad, and related, land uses are evident in the Jozini municipal area.
- Wetlands and waterbodies associated with the Pongola River and its course in a northerly direction towards Mozambique as well as the Mkuze River along the southern boundary of the municipality.
- Some, although rather limited, unimproved grassland and barren rock.
- Forests and Woodlands are located along the ridge of the Lebombo Mountains as well as along the Mkuze River.
- The distribution of cultivated land in the municipality is limited.
- Some areas of the municipality are degraded land.
The Jozini LM covers approximately 32% (2 138 km 2) of the total area of uMkhanyakude District Municipality. About 60% of Jozini falls under Ingonyama Trust ownership with four tribal courts which are recognized as being custodians of the land. There also exists a significant area of State land which surrounds the Pongola River.
Conservation areas within Jozini LM include, iSimangaliso Wetland Park the Mkuze Game Reserve, the UBombo Mountain Reserve, the Hlatikhulu Nature Reserve, the Manguzi Forest
Reserve and Ndumo Game Reserve.
Discussions for the establishment of formal town areas for Jozini, Bhambanana, etc are still ongoing.
The first map above presents the locality of all land restitution claims within Jozini LM. It is seen that the majority of settled claims are located towards the southern portion (Mkuze Town) of Jozini LM while a few unsettled are located towards the north in the Ndumo area. The above table indicates the state of land claims within the Jozini Municipality. 8 land restitution claims were lodged and only 1 has been gazetted.
The factors responsible for high levels of biodiversity present in the area are also responsible for the high levels of biodiversity present in the vegetation. The uMkhanyakude District is part of the Indian Ocean phytogeography region and is a regional transition zone and a regional mosaic. Flora comprises a mixture of several floristic elements and communities and differs substantially from that of surrounding regions. Vegetation is exceptionally diverse and ranges from forest, thickets and woodlands to grassland and swamps depending on topography and edaphic conditions. These can be classified into 15 discrete vegetation types. Of at least 2180 vascular plant species, 225 species are endemic or near endemic to the Jozini area.
Biodiversity in the municipality is under pressure because of land conversion, climate change, unsustainable harvesting of natural resources and the wide spread of alien species. Natural
resources provide opportunities for economic empowerment through sustained agriculture, ecotourism, indigenous plant use etc.
The primary areas of conservation are indicated on Map below and can be described as follows:
- The ESA Species areas in the southern part of the Municipality
- The CBA Irreplaceable areas along the N2, next to Hlathikulu Forest Reserve and west of Ndumo Game Reserve
- The Landscape corridor of the Lebombo mountains on the western boundary of the municipality
- The floodplain and wetland complex of the Phongolo River from Jozini Dam to Ndumo Nature Reserve
Jozini has an abundance of natural water resources. Major rivers include the Pongola River, the Ingwavuma River, the Mkuze River, and the Usuthu River, of these only the Usuthu and Pongola Rivers are perennial. The Pongola is the most important river in Jozini as it traverses the full length of the area. The flooding of the Ingwavuma and the Usuthu dam up the waters of the Pongola, resulting in an area of deep flooding during peak floods and the infilling of plains. Local Mountain drainage comprises a number of seasonal streams that drain the dip-slope and scarp-slope faces. Some of these streams have perennial pools. In spite of this apparent abundance of water, there is some concern about the provision of potable water to rural areas.
The town of Mkuze obtains its water from the Mkuze River and a small dam. The River originates in Northern KwaZulu-Natal and flows through the Lebombo Mountains, across the coastal plain into Lake St Lucia. It is approximately 290km long and has a drainage basin of 4820 km2 but is not a reliable water source. The dam referred to is privately owned and arrangements for abstraction are of a temporary nature and it is considered to be an unstable water source. The town UBombo also gets its water from the Mkuze River and a number of boreholes that are not reliable. As such, the towns of Mkuze and UBombo do not have sufficient potable water to sustain their respective populations. This has resulted in restrictions and the occasional total cessation of their water supply (uPhongolo Sub-Regional Plan, 1999).
According to the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, water from the Pongolapoort Dam is of excellent quality, but its total dissolved solid is low which means that it is very aggressive on steel. Floods are simulated twice a year and, if possible, synchronised with the high flows of the Usutu River to obtain the maximum flood effect. The Pongolapoort Dam supplies water for the Tshongwe-Malobeni water scheme as well as scheme villages. The Pongola River Flood Plain has a series of pans that flood seasonally. The Pongola River is a major water source supplying the whole Shemula Scheme. The town of Jozini obtains water from the Jozini Water Treatment plant, which is presently operating at full capacity (uPhongolo Sub-Regional Plan, 1999).
Due to the rural nature of the municipality; air quality issues in the Jozini are less prevalent. The presence of sugar cane farming suggests that there is a need of a seasonal check-up and regulatory mechanisms on the burning of sugarcane farms.
Jozini area is characterized by seasonal dry winters and wet summers with periodic flooding. The summer temperature ranges from 23° to 40°, while winter temps range from 16° to 26°.
Mean annual rainfall is 600mm and 800mm along the Lebombo Mountains which fall within a moist belt. The annual average evaporation is approximately 1660mm with evaporation highest during the winter and early spring months.
Waste Management Analysis
Following the closure of iSibandlana and Ingwavuma waste disposal sites, Jozini municipality has one waste disposal site, i.e. Mkhuze Waste Disposal site. While the said 2 sites have been closed; there is still element of illegal dumping taking place on the sites.
Umkhanyakude District-wide Waste Disposal Site Compliant Check
On a quarterly basis the uMkhanyakude Environmental Management Unit conduct a waste disposal site compliant check exercise on all waste disposal sites within the district. This to determine the level of improvement within which municipalities manage their waste disposal sites. Since almost all waste disposal sites are illegal, there is poor compliant with most of the checklist indicators.
The waste disposal compliant check for Jozini Waste Disposal sites is further highlighted in the table below. It should however be indicated that 2 sites (iSibandlane and iNgwavuma) have since been closed subsequent to the DEA licensing of illegal waste disposal sites project. As such, currently the Jozini municipality utilizes the Mkhuze waste disposal which is itself illegal and unlicensed.
Recycling, Reuse, Recovery and Waste Minimization Initiatives
The municipality does not have any recycling policy for either its municipal staff nor for the municipality as a whole. Domestic waste at all the landfill sites was observed to contain large amounts of recyclable material despite the recycling activities. This included plastics and paper grades. General waste at households was observed to contain a large amount of recyclable material. This included plastic and paper grades. There are no accurate records of the quantities of waste generated in different areas of the municipality. It is therefore not possible to set recycling, reuse, recovery and minimization targets.
The Jozini Recycling Centre was established with Assistance from the Belgium Government to recycle paper and plastic waste from the Jozini area, unfortunately the site is underutilized. Due to poor management by the municipality the recycling centre has not been utilized for it intended function. New S.A Waste Management and Recycling Service” was once among other recyclers who operated the recycling centre, where cardboard boxes, and plastics were recycled. They had however had a number of problems associated with high transportation costs associated with the distance to the main depot in Durban.
The municipality should resuscitate and refurbish the Jozini recycling centre and it should also encourage green waste/compost treatment at the Recycling Centre. Facilities to deal with green waste are available but underutilized at the recycling centre. The municipality needs to consider the implementation of a policy to govern recycling, waste minimization, and reuse activities. Recovery operations for plastic and paper at the landfill site / recycle center need to be improved to increase the amounts of recyclable materials recovered from the landfill site. Recovery of recyclable materials needs to be encouraged at homes and business focal sources. This will reduce the amounts of recyclable waste to landfill site.
Public education campaigns required to promote and educate on benefits of recycling. Municipality needs to consider additional public private initiatives to encourage waste recycling and reuse. This could include promoting recycling of waste in outlying settlement areas and having these removed initially by the municipality. Eventually this activity could be contracted out or ‘sold’ to a private recycler. The municipality needs to conduct a detailed study to understand the percentages of recyclable materials that form a part of the general waste stream from residential and business areas.
This study should also consider what system to employ for removal of these wastes from residential areas to central areas in the municipality, and hence sale to other areas. An accurate method of recording waste dropped off at the landfill sites needs to be established (weighbridge at the landfill). the existing Mkhuze site and the proposed Regional landfill site must also prioritize this.
Jozini has been identified as one the dirtiest municipality in the District. Illegal dumping and litter is rife in the municipality, impacting negatively of the Tourism Sector, which is one of the 2 main economic drivers in the municipality. The perpetrators of illegal dumping are Individuals, households, waste transporters, businesses/industries, builders and demolishers. Contributors to illegal dumping includes:
- Lack of community pride and lack of respect for law, people and land they live in
- Avoiding of cost to transport and pay at disposal/landfill sites
- Lack of proper waste collection services
The following General Provisions should apply to areas where illegal dumping takes place:
- Measures to counter act illegal dumping to be considered (instituting waste collection
- Service in affected area, developing bylaws, law enforcement activities, education and awareness).
- Providing a waste collection service in areas previously not serviced.
- Public Awareness (Reduce Reuse Recycle) via schools, shopping centres, pay points.
- Public private initiatives – Clean up campaigns including those organized with religious organizations, recycling forums.
- Sign posting areas where frequent dumping occurs.
- Identifying known hot spots.
- Policing / managing known dumping hot spots.
As with any other rural municipalities, Jozini municipality is characterized by poor building control systems which is compounded by the reality that the municipality does not own the land, as it is total owned by the Ingonyama Trust. Therefore, the inability of the municipality to inform and make suggestions around land allocation results in inability to effectively manage and control building structure as a result. Poor Building control is reflected through poorly-organized, poorly-built towns. The municipality has however invested in Building Control Directorate Unit by ensuring that it is functional. The Directorate has a Manager, and an Officer. Building Control By-laws have also been developed.
Despite these challenges; a handful of building applications are submitted and subjected through the municipal building control application processes. There is however an internal challenge regarding storage and preserving of such application documentations. Jozini Local municipality have numerous copies of building plans at its disposal and management of these plans has become a challenge. Old building plans are fading and in a poor physical state. The National Building Regulation Act states that the plan once submitted needs to be commented on, approved or refused within a 30-day period. The effective implementation of a building plan management software solution will facilitate these regulations whilst also maintaining proper archives of past plans such that in the event of plan applications being misplaced, the filing application can be completely recreated in a physical form.
The need for electronic filing and management system is further strengthened by introduction of the MPRA Act where land properties and structures built thereon within Local Municipalities are required to be rated by municipalities as another source of municipal revenue. With electronic filing and management system, the Municipality will able to scan and associate electronic building plans to land properties in a database environment.
Through this process, storage and access to building plans will be effectively controlled.
Municipal Institution Capacity
Municipal Disaster Management Centre
In terms of the Disaster Risk Management Act 2002, (Act No.57 of 2002), Section 43-50 outlines the establishment and functions of the Centre in order to ensure an integrated and co-ordinated approach to Disaster Risk Management within the Municipality.
Jozini Local Municipality Disaster Management unit was established in 2011. The Municipality currently does not have a Disaster Management Centre (building). However, a park home is used as a Disaster Centre where Firefighters are based. The Disaster Officer is situated in one of the Municipal Offices not far from the Fire Station/Disaster Centre. The Municipality is in the process of drafting a business plan for the establishment of a Disaster Management Centre. The business plan should be completed by end of 2021/2022 financial year.
The Unit has 1 Disaster/ Fire & Rescue Manager, 1 Disaster Officer and a Disaster Clerk.
The Fire & Rescue Services Unit has 8 full-time firefighters and 5 fire fighters interns who work four shifts. These firefighters who are also assisting in carrying out Disaster Management activities due to shortage of staff in the Disaster Management Unit.
Office space and Vehicles
A park-home is used as a Fire Station. The Unit currently have 1 vehicle allocated for Disaster Management activities; however, Disaster Officer has been allocated for Car allowance, The Fire & Rescue vehicles are also utilised to attend to Disaster issues. The Municipality has budgeted for 1 Fire Engine ,10 000Litres in the 2021/2022 financial year. The Business Plan for Jozini Disaster Centre is in progress. Currently there is a Park home allocated for Disaster & Fire unit which is fully equipped as required. Working tools /equipment’s are still in order and have been budgeted for in the next financial year.
Municipal Disaster Management Policy Framework
The establishment of the Jozini Local Municipality Disaster Management Framework is completed. The municipality council has adopted the Jozini Disaster Management Policy Framework.
The Jozini Local Municipality Disaster Risk framework is available, and is in line with the National, Provincial and District frameworks and deals with each of the four Key Performance Areas as well as the three enablers.
Municipal Disaster Management Plan
In terms of the Disaster Risk Management Act 2002, (Act No.57 of 2002), Section 53, each municipality must prepare a disaster risk management plan for its area according the circumstances prevailing in the area.
The Jozini Local municipality has a Disaster Management Plan which was compiled in 2019 and adopted by the Council in 2020. The Municipality ensured that all relevant stakeholders were involved in the compilation of the plan. The Municipal Disaster Management Sector Plan has recently been adopted in June 2020 and it is currently under review and has been reviewed in December 2019.
Municipal Disaster Management Inter-Departmental Committee
Jozini Local Municipality has no municipal Inter-Departmental committee; however, it makes use of the Management (Manco), Community Services Departmental and Disaster Management & Fire & Rescue Sectional meetings to address all Disaster Management related issues. Moving forward we plan to establish the committee which will comprise of Community Services Portfolio Chairperson, Director Community Services, Municipal
Manager, Manager Public Safety, Disaster Management and Fire & Rescue Personnel.
Municipal Disaster Management Advisory Forum
Section 51 of the Disaster Management Act (Act 57 of 2002) states that municipalities may establish a municipal disaster management advisory Forum. Jozini Municipality Disaster Risk Management Advisory Forum was established and launched on the 24 October 2017 and it is functional.
According to subsection (1) a forum is a body in which the municipality and other key stakeholders consult one another and co-ordinate their actions on matters relating to disaster management in areas under their jurisdiction. Terms of Reference have been developed for all members of the forum. The forum is planned to meet on quarterly basis. The Disaster Management Forum is meeting quarterly.
Disaster Risk Assessment
Based on the combined results of the Ward investigations, the following matrix which reflects the Hazards threatening Jozini Municipality, as compared to UMkhanyakude District Municipality was developed:
Risk Reduction and Prevention
In this section the focus is on disaster risk reduction strategies required for the identified common risks and hazards in KPA 2. Prevention and mitigation strategies are looked at. Structural and non-structural measures need to be undertaken to limit the severity of the adverse impact of natural and technological hazards on vulnerable areas, communities and households. Prevention where possible, is undertaken to provide outright avoidance of the adverse impact of hazards and related environmental technological and biological disasters. The importance of Risk Reduction and Prevention cannot be underestimated; currently the municipality is involved in awareness campaigns at local schools and in the community on disaster management. The table below indicates hazards which normally turn into disaster risks due to the vulnerability of the community and environment because of the lack of capacity and alertness. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) programmes have been developed to deal with identified disaster risks. These are some of the DRR strategies for example, integrated development & service delivery, awareness campaigns, capacity building, dissemination of early warning, land use management and other methods.
Response and Recovery
Municipal Capacity in terms of Response and Recovery
Section 53 of the Disaster Management Act (Act 57 of 2002) deals with disaster management plans for municipal areas. Section 53 (1) (k) of the Act prescribes that a disaster management plan must contain contingency plans and emergency procedures in the event of a disaster, providing for prompt disaster response and relief and the procurement of essential goods and services.
The Municipality set aside Disaster management budget annually for the purchase of relief materials in the form of tents, blankets, food parcels, plastic sheeting, lighting conductors and food parcels. This material is provided to victims of disasters or serious incidents when necessary.
Advisory forum and Joint Operation Committee (JOC) are structures that are always activated to discuss issues pertaining to response and recovery measure that must be put in place. Both structures are made up stakeholders that have a role to play in terms of Disaster Management.
Grant funding allocated for post-disaster recovery (where applicable)
Jozini Municipality has submitted an application to the Department of Human Settlement for response on households that were affected by disaster incidents that occurred in December 2020, January 2021 (Ellios). The Ellios intervention is in progress by Provincial Department of Human Settlements. Funding for December 2020 temporary shelter intervention has been submitted to National Department of Human Settlements, no response received as yet.
The Jozini Municipality have received post-disaster recovery intervention from SASSA in a form of food parcels, DSD in a form of food parcels and counselling to the family that lost their loved ones during disaster storms, Gift of the givers, Red cross with food parcels and Provincial Disaster Management Centre assist in terms of assessments and relief material (food parcels, and Disaster relief)
Education, Training and Awareness
Planned Capacity Building Programmes
Sections 15 and 20(2) of the Disaster Risk Management Act (Act 57 of 2002) specifies the promotion of capacity building, training and education throughout the Republic, including in schools, and, to the extent that it may be appropriate.
This key performance area addresses the development of education and training for disaster risk management and associated professions as well as the inclusion of disaster risk management and risk-avoidance programmes in school curricula. It also outlines that awareness needs to be created within the community. For example, community and school awareness campaigns etc.
Disaster Management Sections annually puts aside a budget to conduct awareness campaigns in schools, war-rooms, communities, traditional leaders, councillors and other stakeholders. The Municipality has deployed 100 volunteers in all 20 Wards, these volunteers will also be capacitated on disaster management including disaster awareness campaigns. These campaigns will assist in prevention or mitigation of disaster incidents.
Planned Public Awareness Campaigns
The Municipality annually plans to conduct 20 disaster awareness campaigns in every ward. These awareness campaigns are targeted for schools, communities and traditional leaders. Jozini Municipality is also utilizing Maputaland radio station to warn the community of the Climate change and special precautions to be taken when such incident occurs.
Breakdown of available budget for disaster management and fire services:
Funding Mobilization Strategy
After the adoption of Emergency Centre Business plan, Grant application will be forwarded in different stakeholders including private partnership. Our Section will embark in sourcing funds from business people in all towns around Jozini Jurisdiction and Cogta in order to purchase a new fire engine truck and a second bakkie.
Jozini Municipality has established a Disaster Advisory Forum which will hopefully gear private partnerships with local business people and in a long-term partnership from companies outside the jurisdiction of Jozini Municipality by engaging the Local Economic Development Sector.