The population of Jozini Municipality forms part of the ultimate objective of the development process, as well as being a subject in the process, since the people provide labour and entrepreneurship for production and also consume the output of production, which are key ingredients to economic growth and development. To create a clear picture of socio- economic conditions in Jozini Municipal area, it is essential to analyse the size, composition and growth pattern of the population, along with changes in these magnitudes. The following section analyses some key demographic indicators and their implication to the municipal’s economy.
Population has both a positive and a negative effect on economic growth. On the positive side amongst others, population growth acts as a source of production of goods and services, whereas on the other side it exerts pressure on the district municipality to provide basic services that respond to the growing population.
The Population Trends image shows that the municipality has experienced a slow but steady growth in its population. The population increased from 190 625 in 2010 to 200 820 in 2019, recording a 5.3% growth.
Jozini appears to be the municipality that is most populated within the district. The municipality hosts 40% of the district’s population followed by Mtubatuba Municipality (37%). Some of the reasons why the municipality attracts most of the district’s population could be its better economic opportunities that other family municipalities within the district are lacking.
Whilst the municipality has experienced considerable growth in its population, it is worthnoting that the population growth has double impact on the municipal’s economy. On one side, it can stimulate the growth in its economy through provision of labour and growing market for goods and service, which in turn can stimulate entrepreneurship, consequently spurring more business activities in the area. On the other side, population growth puts pressure on the municipality and other government departments to provide basic services including water and sanitation, road network, electricity, schools, hospitals, etc. The municipality should therefore put in place strategic interventions or programmes that respond to its growing population.
Jozini Municipality is dominated by Black community whose number has grown over the years. Indian / Asian population has also experienced some growth and this could be attributed to immigrants from Asia that are moving to the municipal area to start businesses. The White and Coloured population has declined.
The Population Composition image illustrates the age structure / composition of Jozini Municipality population. It shows that majority (40%) of the municipal population is children (0 – 14 years). However, this population group has experienced a decline over the years. Approximately 36% youth of the population is youth, which is second after children. This age category showed some growth in the years 2001 – 2011 but started decline in 2016 standing at 36% by 2019. About 18% are at the 35 -59 age group and only 6% are over 60 years.
The municipality is dominated by children, which puts pressure on the municipality and other government departments to provide services that meet the needs of this age category. Basic services such as schools, hospitals, and playing ground / park are essential for this age category. Similarly, a substantial population of Jozini are by youth, which necessitates the provision of services that enhance job opportunities and social wellbeing.
The Gender Profile image demonstrates the gender structure of Jozini Municipality. It shows that the municipality is dominated by female (55%) This phenomenon of females being more than males is experienced across the regional, provincial and national levels. This trend necessitates the municipality to rethink strategically in its planning and development programs. The current trend demands the municipality to consider programs and projects that respond to women needs, including economic empowerment.
The GVA Contribution by Sector image shows GVA contribution. The figure shows that government is the main contributor to the Jozini GVA contributing approximately 40% to the municipal GVA. Wholesale is the second contributor to the municipal GVA contributing about 13%, followed by community 12% and transport at 9%. Agriculture contributes only 6% of the municipal’s GVA.
Figure 8 below presents the level of employment in Jozini Municipality. It shows that approximately 17 999 people were employed and 15 444 were unemployed by 2019. The number of employment and unemployment has increased over the years.
The above map indicating the population density clearly shows that the population are concentrated at the nodes of Jozini, Mkuze and Ingwavuma. The road between the nodes of Bhambanana and Ndumo also reflects high population densities.
Population Growth Projections
Jozini LM experienced a positive population growth rate between 2011 and 2016 of 1.3%. A positive population growth rate may be influenced by several factors including the migration of people into the municipality, an increase in birth rate coupled with a decrease in death rate. Population increase also poses economic and social implications in the municipality’s growth and development and strategies thereof.
The average national growth rate is 2%, if this is applied to the JLM population it is estimated that the population will be 246085 by the year 2025. Using the JLM growth rate (1.33%) calculated from the years 2011 to 2016, it is estimated that the population of Jozini would be 223666 people by the year 2025.